Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment or natural resources that causes environmental imbalance and adverse changes. It can take the form of chemical substances or energy like noise, heat, or light. The history of pollution is old as existence of life when man came to know the use of fire and first time burnt the wood for different purposes and emitted smoke from it which for the first time polluted the environment. It dates back to the different ages like Stone Age, metal age, semi mechanized age, industrial age, modern age and worst ever digitalized era.
Accordingly pollution is of seven main types:
- Air pollution: the contamination of air present in our environment is known as air pollution. This type of pollution is caused due to partially combustion of gases which produce poisonous gases like carbon monoxide (MO), it is also caused due to burning of discarded rubber, plastic, fire crackers, and wood which releases carcinogenic gases and causes air pollution.
- Water pollution: as the name suggests itself ‘water’, is a type of pollution that involves the contamination of water bodies that supports life. It is caused due to dumping of industrial waste, insecticides, pesticides, ripening chemicals, detergents and oil spills into natural water bodies.
- Soil pollution: it is a type of pollution which is caused due to usage of artificial chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc into soil to increase fertility of soil.
- Thermal pollution: increase in temperature in the ecosystem due to release of excessive heat energy into the environment by natural or artificial means, due to vehicles which have combustion engine releases high amount of heat energy. It causes in Global Warming.
- Radioactive pollution: it is the most dangerous type of pollution caused due to disintegration of metals releasing dangerous beta rays which causes cancer especially skin cancer. Its best example is atomic bomb left over Japan at the last of Second World War.
- Noise pollution: the sounds which are not pleasant are called as noises, so excess of noises in outdoors causes noise pollution caused due to honking of vehicles , trains, clubs, crowded places, etc.
- Light pollution: bright lights in functions, in big cities, by vehicles causes light pollution resulting in extreme discomfort to eyes, depression, headache and even migraine.
UNO’s recent reports said that about 7 million people are dying annually from air pollution only and 92% of world’s population is living in those places where pollution level exceeds recommended limits. “Fast action to tackle the air pollution can’t come soon enough” top UN WHO environmental officer Maria Neria said, she also added that “Solutions exists with sustainable transport, waste management, access to clean fuels as well as renewable energies and industrial emissions reduction”. According to WHO ( World Health Organization) reports that 94% of deaths are due to non-communicable diseases- notable cardio-vascular diseases, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Air pollution also raises risks of acute respiration disorders.
We know that the environment and human well being are inextricably linked with each other. So it stands to reason that public should have right to be involved in environmental decision making. There are various countries which have strong laws for environmental issues like penalty of life imprisonment not less than a year and fine in Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, USA, UK, South Africa, etc. there are also various countries where environmental law score is very less like in Belize, Jordan, St. Lucia, Nepal, Srilanka , etc.
Recent research conducted in USA surveyed that more than 20 million deaths occurs due to all type of pollutions and majority of them pertains to East and Central Asia. Another study surveyed that 40% of world’s deaths are because of one or another type of pollution. There are mainly 45 diseases categorized which are caused due to pollutions
Diseases caused due to air pollution are:- asthma attacks, pulmonary cancer, pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, leukemia, autism, and etc, etc
Diseases caused due to water pollution are:- typhoid, giardiasis, hepatitis, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney damage, liver cancer, malaria , rashes, aches, weak sexual power, pink eyes, etc, etc.
Diseases caused due to soil pollution are: – cancer, brain and nerve damage, kidney and liver failure.
Diseases caused due to remaining pollutions are: – lack of efficiency, lack of concentration, fatigue, abortion, fluctuating blood pressure deafness and anxiety.